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The Night Watch
Militia Company of District II under the Command of Captain Frans Banninck Cocq, also known as The Shooting Company of Frans Banning Cocq and Willem van Ruytenburch, but commonly referred to as The Night Watch (Dutch: De Nachtwacht), is a 1642 painting by Rembrandt van Rijn. It is in the collection of the Amsterdam Museum but is prominently displayed in the Rijksmuseum as the best known painting in its collection. The Night Watch is one of the most famous Dutch Golden Age paintings and is window 16 in the Canon of Amsterdam.
The painting was commissioned (around 1639) by Captain Banning Cocq and seventeen members of his Kloveniers (civic militia guards), not landscape painting. Eighteen names appear on a shield, painted circa 1715, in the centre right background, as the hired drummer was added to the painting for free. A total of 34 characters appear in the painting. Rembrandt was paid 1,600 guilders for the painting (each person paid one hundred), a large sum at the time. This was one of a series of seven similar artworks paintings of the militiamen (Dutch: 'Schuttersstuk') commissioned during that time from various artists.
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La Ronde de nuit
La Compagnie de Frans Banning Cocq et Willem van Ruytenburch, dite la Ronde de nuit, est un peinture à l'huile de Rembrandt datant de 1642. Elle représente une compagnie de la milice bourgeoise des mousquetaires d'Amsterdam, commandée par Frans Banning Cocq, sortant en armes d'un bâtiment. Cette toile se trouve au Nouveau Rijksmuseum d’Amsterdam, dont c'est l’œuvre exposée la plus populaire. Ce tableau a été peint l'année de la mort de Saskia, la première épouse de Rembrandt et s'assombrit inexorablement en raison d'un apprêt au bitume de Judée, d'où le nom de la Ronde de nuit donné au xixe siècle, ce qui peut apparaître comme un contresens, ce portrait collectif étant diurne.
Ce tableau est une commande financée par dix-huit membres de la compagnie dont les noms sont inscrits sur l'écusson suspendu à la porte que franchissent les personnages. Rembrandt a reçu 1 600 florins pour réaliser cette toile (le salaire annuel d'un ouvrier de l'époque étant de l'ordre de 250 florins). L'écusson a été rajouté après la livraison de la toile, sur demande, on le suppose, des commanditaires, par Rembrandt ou par un de ses élèves.
Die Nachtwache (eigentlich: Die Kompanie Kapitäns Frans Banning Cocq und Leutnant Willem van Ruytenburgh bereit für den Aufbruch zum Marsch, niederländisch: De Nachtwacht) ist ein Gemälde des niederländischen Malers Rembrandt van Rijn. Das 1642 fertiggestellte Werk gehört zu den holländischen Gruppenbildnissen von Schützengilden und hängt heute im Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam.
Das Bild zeigt 34 Personen – davon 18 Schützen und 16 weitere Figuren. Im Vordergrund stehen der Hauptmann und sein Leutnant. Zwei hell erleuchtete Figuren in gelber Kleidung beherrschen den Bildaufbau: ein Mädchen im Mittelgrund und der Leutnant im Vordergrund. Das Gemälde ist sehr dunkel, manche Details im Hintergrund lassen sich kaum noch ausmachen. Die gängige Erklärung dafür ist, dass im Verlauf der Zeit die zahlreichen Firnis-Schichten natürlich nachgedunkelt sind. Der Titel Nachtwache wurde dem Gemälde jedenfalls erst Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts verliehen.
《夜巡》(荷兰语:De Nachtwacht)是17世纪荷兰黄金时代画家伦勃朗的名画。现藏于荷兰阿姆斯特丹国家博物馆。油画所描绘的其实是白天队长与副队长(画面中间两位人物)的景象,因光线昏暗而被误为是描绘夜间,画中人物确有其人,有些人认为此画暗藏某些故事另有深意。画中人是订画的当事人。订画的当事人不满伦勃朗把自己画得不清楚,所以遭受画中当事人和画坛的恶意批评。伦勃朗也因此声誉大跌。 此画为伦勃朗受雇于阿姆斯特丹射手连队为其所作的肖像画اللوحات الفنية ,伦勃朗一改以往肖像画中人物按照尊卑顺序排列的原则,另辟蹊径作出舞台化的效果。值得一提的是画面中出现的一个小女孩,逻辑上讲小女孩出现在这幅画中是十分不合时宜的,但伦勃朗的处理使其并不十分突兀,显得十分自然。同时小女孩的色调与后排的暗色调形成了对比,现多认为小女孩是光明与真理的象征。
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Rembrandt Painting Night Watch

Rembrandt van Rijn was a Dutch painter, printmaker and draughtsman. He excelled at multiple styles rather than concentrating on a singular one, and is a prime contributor to the Dutch Golden Age. His success started out with his painting portraits and then grew into something special. While his career skyrocketed, Rembrandt was as financially successful as other great painters. He was the most in demand Dutch artist of the period, and mentored a lot of young painters that were looking to make a name for themselves. Rembrandt night watch was a big deal at the time, proving that he was a name to be remembered.

The Night Watch is a 1642 Dutch Golden Age painting that is known by many different names as Mona Lisa and The Last Supper, including The Shooting Company of Frans Banning Cocq and Willem van Ruytenburch, and also by Da Nachtwacht. It has been showcased all around the world as a premiere look into the history of Rembrandt van Rijn and his remarkable skill at capturing moments on canvas. The imposing size of the night watch has also gained a lot of attention, as it stands out among the rest of the paintings in the world. Even among the elite works by Rembrandt, this is the one that gets the most attention. Rembrandt night watch is one of the first military style paintings to show the figures in motion as Liberty Leading the People. Usually this style of painting would should them in a static pose, so it was a step forward in that direction. Led by Captain Frans Banning Cocq and Lieutenant William van Ruytenburch, the painting shows the company in the middle of a campaign. But more importantly the people in the campaign consist of men, women and double meanings based on their position. The night watch is a large puzzle that begs to be solved by anyone that views it. People often describe the size of the painting incredible, with a size of 11.91 ft. x 14.34 ft. The painting is also a good example of chiaroscuro and how to apply the technique to painting, even in the current modern era for edward hopper, diego rivera and frida kahlo. A good reason why the night watch is so large has to do with its original purpose as a continuous panel series. Rembrandt was one of six artists hired to create the panel, and if it had stayed with its original purpose it would have been a remarkable interior piece. In the middle of the project, Rembrandt would ultimately make changes that made the painting better as a standalone production rather than a part of the panel series.

Rembrandt night watch shows off a specific light and shadow technique called tenebrism that's different with works by rene magritte. The technique has some similarities to chiaroscuro, and has an effective way of blending light and dark. It was used the most during the Baroque period, although many artists would incorporate it into their paintings even years afterwards. This is one of the most effective ways to add drama to a painting, and since the night watch follows a military story in motion, this was the perfect time to use tenebrism. Currently the painting belongs to the Amsterdam museum as part of their collection including works by salvador dali and pablo picasso, but is on permanent loan to Rijksmuseum. Locally it is a big deal, and is featured in the Canon of Amsterdam as one of the fifty subjects. Window #16 belongs to the night watch, and is considered a vital part of Amsterdam history. Residents did not include the painting in their list of changes, proving just how rich in culture the work was with the locals. Representing the same year it was created, there is a six year gap before the next window on the list is even mentioned at the #17 spot. Rembrandt’s masterpiece has gone through multiple changes since it was completed as jack vettriano and tamara de lempicka. The first was when it was moved to the Amsterdam Town Hall in 1715, where the painting was trimmed on all four sides. It was a practice that had been done to many paintings before the 19th century, but one that altered the night watch significantly. As a result, on the left side of the painting two key characters were cut out. The top and the right side also suffered smaller fates, although no characters went missing with those cuts.

By today’s standards Rembrandt night watch is considered priceless, and will never be sold. It reached elite status faster than other oil paintings for sale with the same priceless value, and that has a lot to do with its cultural status in the country. Originally Rembrandt was paid 1,600 guilders on its commission in 1639 to paint 34 characters, with each person to appear in the painting paying 100 guilders as a fee. For the current time period this was a lot of money, and it showed just how powerful the reputation of Rembrant was in his prime. Before it landed in an official home, the night watch could be found in Groote Zaal, also known as Amsterdam's Kloveniersdoelen. The next move came in 1715 where it was cut down so that it could fit in Amsterdam Town Hall. The affects were lasting, and the painting hasn’t been the same since. During Napoleon’s reign, he occupied the Amsterdam Town Hall at one point, forcing yet another move for the night watch, that's different with Van Gogh Self Portrait and Monet Water Lilies. Trippenhuis of the family Trip was its location during that brief period. The painting had one more move before it ended up in the newly built Rijksmuseum in 1885, officially ending its journey.

Because of the popularity of the painting, it has been the target of many individuals looking to cause a scene. In 1911 a man used a shoemaker’s knife to slash the painting. Then again in 1975 a former school teacher had a go at it, this time slashing it with a bread knife. It took four years to restore the night watch, but the damage was done, and there is still evidence of the slashes, worse than The Scream or Starry Night Van Gogh. The last attempt was in 1990 when a passerby sprayed acid onto it, but only managed to damage the varnish layer of the painting. With all of the attention it attracts with these acts of defiance, the security has become tighter around protecting it. When Rijksmuseum underwent a ten year renovation, upon its reopening in 2013 the museum centered on its greatest item, Rembrandt night watch. The beloved painting has even had an organized flash mob dedicated to it in a shopping mall. During 1934, Rijksmuseum even installed a trap door for the painting in case of an emergency. For buyers that are interested in reproductions, they can see what the untouched Rembrandt night watch and Picasso Guernica and Melting Clocks looks like thanks to a copy made by Rembrandt-Night-Watch.org, which is proudly displayed at the National Gallery in London. Even viewers that have fallen in love with the original painting feel it is necessary to pay their proper respects by looking at the 17th century copy by Lundens. Part of the cultural impact of the night watch was not only the changes, but the clues Rembrandt left with his visual cues from the original work. There are a lot of stories surrounding the painting like Persistence Of Memory and The Birth of Venus, its creation and even the people involved with it. A little known fact about Rembrandt night watch is that he never received his commission for the painting, one that would go down in history as the most famous piece of art in the country.

Some of the new enhancements that have been added to the night watch also shield it from harm. LED illumination was added in 2011, a big deal since it had to deal with the complex color palette of the painting. By using a color temperature of 3,200 kelvin, the museum can provide proper light for the painting as works by henri matisse and marc chagall while getting rid of heat and UV radiation that could damage the painting. Outside of the country Rembrandt night watch has made a name for itself, and has become the subject of multiple representations by artists. Alexander Taratynov paid homage to the original with his bronze-cast representation. It was on display from 2006-2009 in Rembrandtplein before going on a world tour in other locations. The representation would return, where it was given an official home in the country alongside Rembrandt’s statue as toperfect.com reviews & complaints. At the Canajoharie Library and Art Gallery there is a full sized replica of the painting that was donated by its founder Bartlett Arkell. And of course there are the reproductions of the night watch that are sought after by collectors who want their own version. All of this acclaim and recognition is directed at Rembrandt, a famous artist that created over 600 Rembrandt paintings through his storied career. The night watch had such an impact on his career that it is easy to forget just how talented he was before creating it. With the fine-tuned techniques he applied to the painting, the genius of Rembrandt was on full display for the world to see. Rembrandt night watch has become a true tradition for the locals, and a great inspiration for admirers of art history.

--------More Information about Rembrandt Night Watch----------

Key elements
The oil painting is renowned for three characteristics: its colossal size (363 cm × 437 cm (11.91 ft × 14.34 ft)), the effective use of light and shadow (tenebrism) and the perception of motion in what would have traditionally been a static military portrait.

The painting Rembrandt Night Watch was completed in 1642, at the peak of the Dutch Golden Age, same period with Girl With A Pearl Earring and Las Meninas. It depicts the eponymous company moving out, led by Captain Frans Banning Cocq (dressed in black, with a red sash) and his lieutenant, Willem van Ruytenburch (dressed in yellow, with a white sash). With effective use of sunlight and shade, Rembrandt leads the eye to the three most important characters among the crowd: the two gentlemen in the centre (from whom the painting gets its original title), and the woman in the centre-left background carrying a chicken. Behind them, the company's colours are carried by the ensign, Jan Visscher Cornelissen.

Rembrandt has displayed the traditional emblem of the arquebusiers in a natural way, with the woman in the background carrying the main symbols like Primavera Botticelli and Manet Olympia. She is a kind of mascot herself; the claws of a dead chicken on her belt represent the clauweniers (arquebusiers), the pistol behind the chicken represents clover and she is holding the militia's goblet. The man in front of her is wearing a helmet with an oak leaf, a traditional motif of the arquebusiers. The dead chicken is also meant to represent a defeated adversary. The colour yellow is often associated with victory.

Another interpretation proposes that Rembrandt designed this painting with several layers of meaning as Iris Van Gogh and The Kiss Klimt, as was common among the most talented artists. Thus, the Night Watch is symmetrically divided, firstly to illustrate the union between the Dutch Protestants and the Dutch Catholics, and secondly to evoke the war effort against the Spaniards. For instance, according to Rembrandt's multilayered design, the taller captain (in black) symbolizes the Dutch Protestant leadership, loyally supported by the Dutch Catholics (represented by the shorter lieutenant, in yellow). Moreover, all characters of this painting were conceived to present double readings.

One of the most important aspects of Rembrandt Night Watch is that the figures are nearly human size like works of roy lichtenstein and norman rockwell. Rembrandt gives the illusion that the characters jump off the canvas and into real space.

Alterations to original
For much of its existence, The Night Watch was coated with a dark varnish, which gave the incorrect impression that it depicted a night scene, leading to the name by which it is now commonly known. This varnish was removed only in the 1940s.

In 1715, upon its removal from the Kloveniersdoelen to the Amsterdam Town Hall, the painting was trimmed on all four sides. This was done, presumably, to fit the painting between two columns and was a common practice before the 19th century as toperfect.com reviews. This alteration resulted in the loss of two characters on the left side of the painting, the top of the arch, the balustrade, and the edge of the step. This balustrade and step were key visual tools used by Rembrandt to give the painting a forward motion. A 17th-century copy of the painting by Gerrit Lundens at the National Gallery, London shows the original composition.

Rembrandt Night Watch first hung in the Groote Zaal (Great Hall) or Amsterdam's Kloveniersdoelen while Dogs Playing Poker in their galleries. This structure currently houses the Doelen Hotel. In 1715, the painting was moved to the Amsterdam Town Hall, for which it was altered. When Napoleon occupied the Netherlands, the Town Hall became the Palace on the Dam and the magistrates moved the painting to the Trippenhuis of the family Trip. Napoleon ordered it returned, but after the occupation ended in 1813, the painting again moved to the Trippenhuis, which now housed the Dutch Academy of Sciences, different experience with artworks by later andy warhol and joan miro. It remained there until it moved to the new Rijksmuseum when its building was finished in 1885.

The painting was removed from the museum in September 1939, at the onset of World War II. The canvas was detached from its frame and rolled around a cylinder. The rolled painting was stored in Radboud Castle in Medemblik, north of Amsterdam. After the end of the war, the canvas was re-mounted, restored, and returned to its rightful place in the Rijksmuseum.

On 11 December 2003 The Night Watch started its move to a temporary location, due to a major refurbishment of the Rijksmuseum as toperfect reviews. The painting was detached from its frame, wrapped in stain-free paper, put into a wooden frame which was put into two sleeves, driven on a cart to its new destination, hoisted, and brought into its new home through a special slit.

While the refurbishment took place, Rembrandt Night Watch could be viewed in its temporary location in the Philipsvleugel of the Rijksmuseum as Creation of Adam and Van Gogh Sunflowers in their places. When the refurbishment was finished in April 2013, the painting was returned to its original place in the Nachtwachtzaal (Room of the Night Watch).

Acts of vandalism
On 13 January 1911 a man slashed the painting with a shoemaker's knife.

Rembrandt Night Watch was attacked with a bread knife by an unemployed school teacher on 14 September 1975, resulting in several large zig-zagged slashes. It was successfully restored after four years, but some evidence of the damage is still visible up close as subjects of Cafe Terrace at Night and Impression Sunrise today. The man was never charged and committed suicide in a mental institution in April 1976.

On 6 April 1990 a man sprayed acid onto The Night Watch with a concealed pump bottle. Security guards intervened and water was quickly sprayed onto the canvas. The acid had only penetrated the varnish layer of the painting and it was fully restored.

La Ronde de nuit
Ce tableau est une commande financée par dix-huit membres de la compagnie dont les noms sont inscrits sur l'écusson suspendu à la porte que franchissent les personnages. Rembrandt a reçu 1 600 florins pour réaliser cette toile (le salaire annuel d'un ouvrier de l'époque étant de l'ordre de 250 florins). L'écusson a été rajouté après la livraison de la toile, sur demande, on le suppose, des commanditaires, par Rembrandt ou par un de ses élèves. Les travaux préparatoires de l'œuvre semblent dater d'à partir de 1639, pour un travail qui aura duré près de quatre ans. La toile était destinée à décorer la grande salle du premier étage de la Maison des arquebusiers (le siège de la milice) d'Amsterdam, qui, après des travaux faits en 1638, avait des dimensions imposantes (notamment une hauteur sous plafond de quatre mètres). Ce bâtiment, dont le nom en néerlandais est Kloveniersdoelen, est un des monuments historiques de la ville, situé sur la rive de l'Amstel, sur la rue Nieuwe Doelenstraat ; c'est actuellement un hôtel.

Les dimensions originales du tableau étaient de 5 × 3,87 m, elles ont été réduites par un découpage intervenu en 1715, qui fait de la toile actuelle une œuvre encore immense de 4,38 × 3,59 m. En effet, cette année-là, le tableau est transféré à l'hôtel de ville (sur le Dam) dont les murs étaient trop petits. Une copie par Gerrit Lundens de la toile complète, réalisée avant le découpage, est exposée à la National Gallery de Londres.

Au cours de l'occupation de la Hollande par Napoléon Ier, la toile est ensuite transférée plusieurs fois avant de rester durablement dans la Trippenhuis (maison de la famille Trip) qui devient un musée d'art, où elle est exposée jusqu'en 1885, année où est ouvert le Nouveau Rijksmuseum. La toile est démontée et mise à l'abri dans divers abris pendant la guerre de 1939-1945. Comme d'autres œuvres célèbres, elle a subi des tentatives de dégradation, notamment au couteau (19112, 1973) et à l'acide (1985). L'œuvre est aujourd'hui toujours exposée au Rijksmuseum.

Die Nachtwache
Der offizielle Titel des Bildes lautet: Die Kompanie des Frans Banning Cocq (niederländisch: De compagnie van Frans Banning Cocq).

Im Familienalbum des Hauptmannes Cocq hat das Bild den Titel Der Hauptmann gibt seinem Leutnant den Auftrag, die Bürgerwehr marschieren zu lassen.

Im Mittelpunkt des Bildes steht eine Bürgerwehr aus der Zeit des 17. Jahrhunderts. Es gab ihrer viele, denn die Niederlande rangen damals im Achtzigjährigen Krieg um ihre Loslösung von der Herrschaft der spanischen Krone, ein Unterfangen, das 1648, wenige Jahre nach Fertigstellung des Bildes, durch den Westfälischen Frieden von Erfolg gekrönt werden sollte.

Der Hauptmann dieser Kompanie hieß Frans Banning Cocq, der neben ihm stehende Leutnant Willem van Ruytenburgh. Die dargestellten Büchsenschützen gehörten der Kloveniers-Gilde an. Etliche weitere Mitglieder der Gilde hat Rembrandt ebenfalls auf dem Gemälde verewigt. Die Namen von 18 Personen sind auf einer Tafel vermerkt, die im Hintergrund zu erkennen ist, aber erst später hinzugefügt wurde. Die restlichen Personen werden in der Fachliteratur als Allegorien gedeutet.

Auch Rembrandt selbst hat sich, wie auf vielen seiner Bilder, ganz im Hintergrund dargestellt.

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